In the 21st century, undoubtedly, developments such as MOOCs, reverse classes, and self-organized learning can change the rules of the game in education. Yet the history of educational technology over the past hundred years reminds us that change is as fleeting or integrative as many people would like it to be. Indeed, the history of modern educational technology, beginning in the 1910s with Thomas Edison’s support for educational filmmaking, is often characterized by a complex and interdisciplinary relationship between education and technology. In other words, new technologies rarely have a one-way direct impact or predictable impact on education, if any. On the other hand, the culture and tradition of sustainable education also have a profound mutual influence on technology. As historian Larry Cuban (1993, 185) briefly observes the school’s incredible resilience to the successive waves of technological advances throughout the 1980s and 1990s, “computers fill the classroom – they win.” When asking how education took the form of the internet in the 2010s, we must ask how education formed the internet.
From this perspective, it is not surprising to see that the most successful forms of Internet-based education and e-learning are those that describe or even mimic pre-Internet forms of education, such as classes, courses, and books. It is not surprising to see the grammar of formal education and training institutions that have long influenced the emergence of Internet-based forms of education. For example, note the continuity of common practice, such as dividing information into different subject areas, using assessed individual assessments, or relying on expert teachers. While understandable, this continuity certainly believes in demands for radical transformation and degradation of the education status quo. Thus, contrary to the revolutionary spirit of some commentators, it can be observed that the Internet has the greatest impact on education, which does not cause radically new patterns of participation or practice.
For example, instead of expanding educational opportunities to those who were previously excluded, the recent increase in MOOCs in countries such as the United States and the UK has mainly resulted in higher education of individuals with high resources, high motivation, and already higher education. Referred to by some social commentators as the Matthew Effect.; repeat the trend. This does not mean that MOOCs are an insignificant form of education – however, this suggests that their main effect is to increase participation in education rather than expand it. In fact, this view implies that some of the more radical demands of social transformation and change around MOOCs and other forms of Internet-based education require careful consideration.
This leaves no effort to estimate the potential impact of the Internet on future forms of education for unclear reasons. Of course, it is unwise to cynically adapt to the notion that there is nothing new in Internet-based education – that is, the effect of Internet education is the old case of alcohol in a new bottle. However, it is equally unwise to assume that one of the examples given so far in this chapter is necessarily a fundamental change in education. The Internet is really associated with educational change – but these changes are complex, contradictory, convoluted, and frankly chaotic.
In this sense, the Internet asks a series of ideological questions about the nature of education in the near future, rather than mere technical answers. Therefore, as this episode approaches, we should stay away from optimistic speculations that cover most of the educational discussions on the Internet. On the other hand, there are a number of important but lesser-known social, cultural, and political implications that should also be noted: This approach appears to be particularly applicable for places such as slum communities in developed countries where Internet access is not available. The announcement of recent initiatives for the Cloud School points to an attempt to use online communication tools to enable older community members in high-income countries to act as friendly but knowledgeable mentors and intermediaries for young autonomous students in low-income communities. Thus, the provision of such access and support appears to support what the project team calls “self-organized learning environments” and “self-activating learning” – thus offering an alternative to “those with no formal education” in low-income countries.
Basically, it is a popular application to use the Internet to socialize with others. Often this way of hanging out can spread to a more focused situation than what Ito calls strolling – i.e. activities that are interest-oriented and more focused on peer sociality, which often involves random search, experimentation, and play with resources. These adventures can sometimes lead to a stronger relationship with what Ito describes in this research. This is a strong and powerful engagement in a community determined by like-minded and interested individuals, driven by common interests and often specific. Despite supporting all of these learning styles, daily use of the Internet can be seen as a natural educational activity. Therefore,
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